Advent of Europeans in India (History for SSC)

1.) Arrival of Portuguese in India:

It was the Colonial who first discovered an immediate sea route to India. Portuguese sailor Vasco da Gama attained Calicut an important sea port upon the South-West India on May well 20, 1498 AD. Double Zamorin, the local rule received him and presented on him certain privileges. After staying in India for any period of three months Vasco da Gama returned having a rich cargo which he sold inside the European market at the exorbitant price- 60 times the money necessary for his voyage.

But soon Vasco da Gama delivered to India for your second time in 1501 AD. He set up some sort of trading factory at Cannanore. With establishment of trade backlinks, Calicut, Cannanore and Cochin emerged the significant Portuguese stores in India. Arab traders became jealous from the rise and success from the Portuguese and hence caused enmity bred between the Portuguese and the nearby king Zamorin. The hostilities grew and generated full- fledged military face- away from between them. King Zamorin was defeated from the Portuguese. With the success over Zamorin, the military superiority from the Portuguese was established.

 Rise of Portuguese power In India:

In 1505 AD, Francisco de Almeida was appointed as the first Portuguese governor throughout India. His policy being centric for you to controlling the Indian Ocean was generally known as the Blue Water Insurance policy. Alfonso de Albuquerque who replaced Almeida as the governor in 1509 AD, and captured Goa in the Sultan of Bijapur in 1510 AD is the real founder of the particular Portuguese power in India. Goa subsequently became the headquarters from the Portuguese settlements in India.

Portuguese hold over the particular coastal areas and fineness in naval power made it easier for them significantly. By the tip of the 16th centuries, the Portuguese captured not just Goa, Daman, Diu, and Salsette but also a vast stretches across the Indian coast.

Decline of Portuguese Power:

But the Portuguese go up in Indian had a shorter life as the completely new rival trading communities from Europe posed an enormous challenge to them. Struggle among various rival trading blocs ensued through which Portuguese had to give way to the more powerful and enterprising competitors progressively rendering them an atrophied thing.

Major Reasons of Diminish of Portuguese power:

Among the many reasons for the decrease of Portuguese power throughout India include Portugal currently being too small a country to maintain the huge burden of any trading colony located in the far off land, their image as infamous sea pirates created enmity inside the minds of the indigenous rulers and last but not the least Portuguese firm religious policy made them the unpopular among the Muslims together with Hindus of India. Besides the arrival of the Dutch and the British in India finally became nemesis from the Portuguese. Ironically, the Colonial, who first arrived India, were the last to withdraw from throughout 1961 AD when government entities of India recaptured Goa, Daman and Diu from them.

i. The Portuguese failed to evolve an efficient system of administration.
ii. Their religious intolerance provoked the hostility of the Indian rulers and the people.
iii. Their clandestine practises in trade went against them, one of which was the Cartaze system by which every Indian ship sailing to a destination not reserved by the Portuguese for their own trade had to buy passes from the Portuguese Viceroy to avoid seizures and confiscation of its merchandise as contraband.
iv. The discovery of Brazil drew the colonising activities of Portugal to the west.
v. The Portuguese failed to compete successfully with the other European companies.

2. ) Arrival of the Dutch:

The people regarding Holland (present Netherlands) tend to be called the Dutch. Alongside the Portuguese, the Dutch set their feet throughout India. Historically the Dutch are already experts in sea buy and sell. In 1602, the United East India Company from the Netherlands was formed and given permission from the Dutch government to trade inside the East Indies including India.

Rise of the Dutch:

In 1605, Admiral Van der Hagen established Dutch Factory at Masulipatam. Another factory was founded at Pettapoli (Nizamapatanam), Devanampatinam (Tegnapatam, called fort St. David later under the British). In 1610, upon negotiating with the King of Chandragiri, the Dutch were permitted to found another factory at Pulicat which was fortified and named as Fort Geldria. Other commodities exported by the Dutch were indigo, saltpetre and Bengal raw silk.

The credit for making Indian textiles the premier export from India goes to the Dutch. Textiles woven according to special patterns sent from Bantam and Batavia, constituted the chief export of the Coromandel ports. Indigo was exported from Masulipatam.

Apart from spice, the chief articles of import to the Coromandel were pepper and sandal­wood from the archipelago, textiles from China and copper from Japan. In 1617, the chief of Pulicat became the Governor and Pulicat was the headquarters of the Dutch in India below the Governor- General in Batavia. Negapatam on the Tanjore coast acquired from the Portuguese in 1659 super­seded Pulicat as the seat of Governor and as the strategic centre of the Coromandelin 1689.

In 1616 Pieter Van den Broecke got from the governor the permission to erect a factory at Surat. The director­ate of Surat proved to be one of the most profitable establishment of the Dutch Company.

Factories were organised at Broach, Bombay, Ahmedabad, Agra and Burhanpur. Bimlipatam (1641), Karikal (1645), Chinsura (1653) where the Dutch constructed Fort Gustavus, Kasimbazar, Baranagore, Patna, Balasore (1658) and Cochin (1663) were other important Dutch factories in India By supplanting the Portuguese, the Dutch practically maintained a monopoly of the spice trade in the East throughout the 17th Century

Dutch Coinage:

The Dutch, throughout their stay in India, tried their on the job the minting of coinages. While their trade flourished they will established mints at Cochin, Masulipattam, Nagapatam Pondicherry along with Pulicat. Even more, Gold pagoda having an image of Lord Venkateswara, (god Vishnu) was issued at Pulicat mint. The coins issued from the Dutch were all modelled around the local coinages.

Decline of Dutch Power:

Dutch presence around the Indian subcontinent lasted from 1605 AD to 1825 AD. The rise of the British power inside the Eastern trade posed serious challenge towards the commercial interest of the Dutch resulting in bloody warfare between them through which Britishers were the clear winners as a result of huge resources at the disposal. The brutal killing regarding some English traders from the Dutch in Amboyna throughout 1623 further aggravated your situation. The Britishers one after another captured Dutch strongholds.

Rout regarding Dutch power in Malabar area:

Amidst the saga regarding Dutch -Anglo -rivalry Travancore full Marthanda Varma gave a fatal blow towards the Dutch East India Company inside the battle of Colachel in 1741 AD resulting in complete rout of Dutch power in Malabar area.

Treaties and compromise using the British:

Although the Anglo-Dutch Treaty was signed in 1814 AD which facilitated restoration regarding Dutch Coromandel and Dutch Bengal to Dutch rule nonetheless they again were returned to British regime much like the clause and the provisions from the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 AD which caused it to be binding on the Dutch to be sure all transfers of house and establishments till/on Goal 1, 1825 AD. By the middle of 1825 AD, therefore, the particular Dutch had forfeited the all trading posts throughout India.

In the ensuing compromise the well known items happened. Both the parties reached a compromise in 1667 AD by which the Britishers, on the cornerstone of give and get formula, agreed to completely withdraw from Indonesia for the Dutch who, in returning, retired from India for you to trade in Indonesia.

3. ) Danish Colonial Possessions in India:

Danish refers to something from or linked to Denmark. Denmark held colonial items in India for 225 several years. The Danish colonies throughout India included the towns of Tranquebar(Tamil Nadu)Serampore (West Bengal) and the Nicobar Islands.

Establishment regarding Danish Trade Monopoly:

It was the Dutch adventurer Marcelis de Boshouwer which provided the impetus for Danish involvement inside the Indian sub-continent. He wanted military assistance up against the Portuguese with a promise of monopoly on all trades towards the assisting party. His charm convinced Christian IV, the particular King of Denmark-Norway which subsequently issued a charter in 1616 granting the particular Danish East India Business a monopoly on buy and sell between Denmark and Japan for twelve years.

Danish Chartered Organizations:

There were two Danish chartered companies. The first company -Danish Eastern side India Company -operated between 1616 AD and 1650 AD. Danish East India Company in conjunction with Swedish East India Business imported more tea as opposed to British East India Company and smuggled the vast majority of it into England, where it sold in a huge profit. The company was dissolved in 1650 AD. The second company persisted between 1670 AD along with 1729 AD, and in 1730 AD it was re-founded as the Asiatic Business. It was granted a 40-year monopoly by way of a royal license on all Danish trade east from the Cape of Good Expect in 1732 AD. Till 1750 AD, 27 cruises from India were routed, with 22 of them survived the journey for you to Copenhagen. But the company lost its monopoly throughout 1772 AD.

Serampore Mission Press:

It is worth -mentioning of which Serampore Mission Press – some sort of historical landmark-was established at Serampore from the Danish missionaries in 1799 AD. Between 1801 AD along with 1832 AD the Serampore Mission Press printed 212, 000 replicates of books in forty different languages.

End of Danish colonies in India:

During the Napoleonic Competitions (1803 AD–1815 AD) the particular British invaded Danish shipment, and devastated the Danish Eastern side India Company's India buy and sell and ultimately captured Danish colonies, making them component of British India. The previous Danish colonial post Serampore was ceded to Britain by simply Denmark in 1845 AD.

DBMS Short Notes For IT Officers and GATE Exam

IBPS Specialist Officers Exam (IT Officers)
Friends, in this post we shall discuss the basics of DBMS (Data Base Management Systems) which will be helpful for you for IBPS Specialist Officers Exam (IT Officers) before going into details, let’s have a look at the basic terminology of DBMS.

Data -- Data is the raw material from which Useful Information is derived.

Data (or) Information Processing -- The process of converting the facts into meaningful information is known as Data processing.It is also known as Information processing.

Meta Data -- Simply we can say it as the Data about the Data

Data Base -- A database is a collection of data (information) of some given Organization (a company for example), that can be processed through one or more programs by multiple users.

Database management systems --

DBMS are computer software applications that interact with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known DBMSs include MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, SAP and IBM DB2. A database is not generally portable across different DBMSs, but different DBMSs can inter operate by using standards such as SQL and ODBC or JDBC to allow a single application to work with more than one DBMS

Database Modal --

A database model is a type of data model that determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized, and manipulated. The most popular example of a database model is the relational model (or the SQL approximation of relational), which uses a table-based format.

Common logical data models for databases include:

  1.  Hierarchical database model 
  2.  Network model 
  3. Relational model 
  4. Entity–relationship model 
  5. Enhanced entity–relationship model 
  6. Object model 
  7. Document model 
  8.  Entity–attribute–value model 
  9. Star schema

Database transaction

A transaction comprises a unit of work performed within a database management system (or similar system) against a database, and treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions. A transaction generally represents any change in database. Transactions in a database environment have two main purposes: 1. To provide reliable units of work that allow correct recovery from failures and keep a database consistent even in cases of system failure, when execution stops (completely or partially) and many operations upon a database remain uncompleted, with unclear status. 
2. To provide isolation between programs accessing a database concurrently. If this isolation is not provided, the program's outcome are possibly erroneous. 

A database transaction, by definition, must be atomic, consistent, isolated and durable. Database practitioners often refer to these properties of database transactions using the acronym ACID.


Atomicity requires that each transaction be "all or nothing": if one part of the transaction fails, the entire transaction fails, and the database state is left unchanged. 

 Consistency (database systems)

The consistency property ensures that any transaction will bring the database from one valid state to another. Any data written to the database must be valid according to all defined rules, including constraints, cascades, triggers, and any combination thereof. 


The isolation property ensures that the concurrent execution of transactions results in a system state that would be obtained if transactions were executed serially, i.e., one after the other. Providing isolation is the main goal of concurrency control. 


Durability means that once a transaction has been committed, it will remain so, even in the event of power loss, crashes, or errors. 

Human Diseases Caused By Bacteria & Viruses

Human Diseases Caused By Bacteria

Causing Agent
Infection / Transmission
Ascaris lumbricoides
raw vegetables infected with eggs
Athletes’ Foot
bad foot hygiene
Bacillary Dysentery
Shigella Dysenterie
flies, food, faeces
Clostridium botulinum
food poisoning
Vibrio Cholerae
flies, food , faeces, carriers
Giardia intestinalis
contaminated stools
Corynebacterium diptheriae
Wuchereria bancrofti
mosquito, infection in lymph nodes
sexual intercourse
Hook worm disease
Ancylostoma Duodenale
faiseces and walking barefoot.
Kala azar
Leishmania Donovani
infected sand fly
Mycobacterium Leprae
Long and close contact
Oriental Sore
Leishmania Tropica
infected sand fly
Pinworm Disease
Enterobius Vermicularis caecum
ingestion of eggs contaminated food
Yersinia Pestis
Rat Flea
Diplococcus pneumonia
bacteria transmission by contact.
Microsporum Trichophyton
cats and dogs
Septic Sore Throat
Streptococcus Bacteria
Sleeping Sickness
Tryponosoma Brucei
reaches lymph nodes through fly bites
Treponema Pallidum
direct contact mainly sex
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
bacteria transmission by cough
Clostridium tetani
bacteria in soil through wounds
Salmonella Typhi
Flies, food etc.
Trichomonas Vaginalis
Female Vaginal & Male Urinary Tract
Whooping cough
Hameophilius Pertussis
coughing and sneezing

Human Diseases Caused By Viruses

Causing Agent
Infection / Transmission
Human T -cell Leukemia Virus
HTLV-III blood and sperms , through sexual contact
Chicken Pox
Common Cold
Dengue Virus
Aedes Mosquito
Herpes Virus
Influenza Flu
Orthomyxo Virus
Measles virus (Paramyxo Virus)
Mumps Virus (Paramyxo virus)
contact, virus in saliva spreads
Polio Virus or Enterovirus
houseflies, food and water
Rhabdo virus
mad dog bites
Variola Virus
Viral Encephelitis
mosquito Bite


booksfor AAI JE exam

AAI Junior Executive Exam (JE) 2015 for selection of JE (ATC) and JE (Electronics) has been announced recently. Are you one of those preparing for this exam? If yes, you may have been searching for some prep materials to prepare for the exam - have you found those? I am afraid you might have been disappointed - the materials available on the net are too scarce and also whatever materials are available, are not authentic. It is because AAI in its official website has not posted that much of info about the written exam - what would be the Syllabus, the Exam Pattern/Format. I have therefore fished out the Syllabus/Exam Pattern of AAI Junior Executive Exam from under the hood and posting the same here. Also I am pointing you to some Sample Papers and Prep Books, so that you can base your preparation on it.

AAI JE Exam 2015 Syllabus/Pattern:

AAI in its recruitment notification has not said anything about the pattern/format of the exam bening conducted for selection of Junior Executive. However, I had dig inside the official website of AAI and found from its career webpage that the Exam Pattern of AAI Junior Executive Exam as follows:

The exam is of two hour duration and consists of 120 objective type multiple choice questions.It has two sections:

1.0 Professional Knowledge Test: It has questions on your specialisation subjects (as given in the educational qualification eligibility).

2.0 Aptitude Test: It has questions on GK, General Intelligence, General Aptitude, English.

The weightage of these two sections is:

Professional Knowledge Test: 70%  Aptitude Test: 30%

This weigtage of exam sections for some posts of AAI is also 50% : 50%. So you should be prepared for this weightage also.

AAI JE Exam Previous Years Papers:

To know what type of questions are asked in AAI Junior Executive Exam you should go through some previous years exam papers. But there is dearth of such authentic previous years papers on the net. I could fish out following three exam papers for the "Electronics" discipline:

Prep Books for AAI Junior Executive Exam:

Airports Authority of India Manager (ATC & Electronics) Jr. Executive (ATC), Sr. Assistant (Electornics) Examination (English)

Since the books specifically meant for AAI exam is very rare, what you can do is use the book for other competitive exams for "Aptitude Test" paper and use the GATE exam book for the "Professional Knowledge Test".
Thats it for now. Hope above materials for AAI JE Exam 2015 comes into your use. I would be on the look out for more study materials on this exam and post the same here as and when I find them. So keep visiting me!

Books for IBPS Specialist Officer Exam

IT officers exam book
IBPS Specialist Officer Exam (CWE SPL 4) scheduled in February month. Large number of aspirants apply for SO Exam for various posts. shortlisted candidates will be appoint in participating banks and other financial institutions. Competition is tough So all participants required to focus on IBPS Specialist officer exam preparations and check Specialist officer syllabus and Specialist officer recommended books and Specialist officer previous year question papers and other study material of SO exam.

As the competition is going to be really tough, you need to study hard in order to make it to the merit list. The number of vacancies for the specialist officer is always very low and that’s why you need to maximum marks. You can not achieve highest marks until you prepare the every section for the exam from a book. We are going to list certain books which are really helpful in increasing your knowledge, speed and ability to solve questions.

Most of candidates search for How to prepare for IBPS Specialist officer exam ? and books to prepare for IBPS Specialist officer exam. here I provide you some of the Best books for IBPS SO exam and Practice sets and solved papers for various category posts. you can also check IBPS Specialist officer exam pattern first in given below table.then for Specialist Officer books for Preparation

Exam Patten of IBPS Specialist Officers

Its is important thing to understand the exam pattern. As i mentioned for eligibility criteria, CWE will have different subjects for different posts.For the CWE for Law Officer- Scale I & II & Rajbhasha Adhikari Scale I, they will ask questions on Reasoning, English Language, General Awareness with special reference to Banking Industry, Professional Knowledge.
Where for the IT Officer Scales I & II, Agriculture Field Officer Scale I, HR/ Personnel Officer Scale I, Marketing Officer Scale I, Chartered Accountants Scale-II & Manager Credit / Finance Executive Scale-II officers CWE, they will ask questions based on Reasoning, English Language, Quantitative Aptitude, Professional Knowledge.

Below is the detail exam pattern table with total no of questions and total time for each section in the examination of SO - 4.

For Law Officer- Scale I & II & Rajbhasha Adhikari Scale I

Subject name No. of Questions Maximum Marks Total Time to answer
Reasoning 50 50 120 Minutes
English Language 50 25
General Awareness with special reference to Banking Industry 50 50
Professional Knowledge 50 75
Total 200 200

For IT Officer Scales I & II, Agriculture Field Officer Scale I, HR/ Personnel Officer Scale I, Marketing Officer Scale I, Chartered Accountants Scale-II & Manager Credit / Finance Executive Scale-II

Subject name No. of Questions Maximum Marks Total Time
to answer
Reasoning 50 50 120 Minutes
English Language 50 25
Quantitative Aptitude 50 50
Professional Knowledge 50 75
Total 200 200
Note:- Test will be taken online only, where you have to answer total of 200 questions on computer. it will be objective test, out of four option you have to choose the correct answer from it.

Detailed IT Officers Syllabus

Exam Material - Books/Notes for IBPS Specialist Officers

CWE IT Officers Scale - 1 & 2 (With CD) : Common Written Examination 2014 (English) 4th Edition
IBPS - CWE Specialist Officer 101 Speed Tests - Agriculture Officer / Marketing Officer / IT Officer (English) 1st Edition
CWE Specialist Officers Cadre IT Officer Scale 1 & 2 Recruitment Exam (English) 1st Edition
Comprehensive Guide to IBPS - CWE : Specialist IT Officer - Scale 1 & 2 (English) 1st Edition Bank Specialist Agricultural Field Officer Common Written Exam IBPS CWE SPL - 4 Specialist Officers / Marketing Officer Online Exam Professional Knowledge Practice Work Book : Including Model Solved Papers Of 2012 - 2014
computer science question and asnwer

Time Management Tips for IBPS Specialist Officers Exam

Make a time table to study daily, apart from doing regular work, you have to find time for the study. Don't think that studying last week only enough to crack this exam. No, you have to score above minimum marks require to get job in IBPS. We are all here to get job, not for the appearing in the exam again. So, take it seriously, make it habit to read and write sums. Get the books first and then start study for the exam, as soon as possible. Do not waste your time in thinking, how to start and from where to start, just start it, you will find your way soon.As soon as you start studying, you will be familiar with the topics and the subjects very soon. if you find any difficulty in studying, then you can ask me in the comment section, i promise to answer them all.

How to prepare for IT officer exam

You have study and make your plan like you get time for revision. i will advise you to study with pen and paper, though the exam will be online only but practicing with pen and paper will help you to remember easily and to understand the topic easily, specially for the Quantitative Aptitude and Reasoning section. The more you practice, you will come near to subject and better you understand. So, Success mantra for ibps exam is "Revision and Practice".

This is enough i guess to rank well in IBPS, if you have any other single query, feel free to ask me in the comment section below, feel free to ask, I will answer your each and every query, for sure! All the best :)

IT Officer Syllabus - Professional Knowledge (IBPS Specialist Officer 2015)

We are providing the list of important topics which cover major portion of professional knowledge section. It will give you insight into the professional knowledge part so that you can prepare accordingly
Some of the major topics which come in professional knowledge section are given below (Although, approximately 60-70 % of  questions is dominated by the first two topics.) -

1. Data Base Management System (DBMS) – 15-20 Questions
2. Normalization
3. Overview of SQL queries
4. E- R Diagrams
5. Transaction Management

2. Data Communication & Networking – 10-15 Questions
1. Network Architecture
2. OSI Model
3. TCP-IP Model
4. Data Communication
5. IP Addressing (Subnetting)

3. Operating System – 4-5 Questions

1. Process
2. Thread
3. Types of OS
4. Semaphore
5. Scheduling
6. Dead Lock
7. Memory Partitioning
8. Page Replacement

4. Computer organization + Hardware (Microprocessor ) – 4-5 Questions
1. Bus Structure

5. Network Security – 2 – 3 Questions
1. Cyber Crimes
2. Risk Management
3. Firewall
4. Cryptography

6. Software Engineering – 2 – 3 Questions
1. Software Development life cycle (SDLC)
2. Software Development Models

7. Data Structures – 3 – 4 Questions
1. Array
2. Linked List
3. Stacks

8. Web Technologies – 1-2 Questions
1. HTML Tags
2. XML
3. Network Security

9. Programming Languages (BASIC)  – 1-2 Questions
1. C, C++
2. OOP (Objected oriented Programming